(b) the placement of deposits with and withdrawal of deposits from
other financial institutions; and
(c) cash advances and loans made to customers and the repayment of
those advances and loans.
Foreign currency cash flows
Cash flows arising from transactions in a foreign currency shall be recorded in an entity's functional currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the cash flow.
The cash flows of a foreign subsidiary shall be translated at the exchange rates between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the dates of the cash flows.
Cash flows denominated in a foreign currency are reported in a manner consistent with IAS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates. This permits the use of an exchange rate that approximates the actual rate. For example, a weighted average exchange rate for a period may be used for recording foreign currency transactions or the translation of the cash flows of a foreign subsidiary. However, IAS 21 does not permit use of the exchange rate at the end of the reporting period when translating the cash flows of a foreign subsidiary.
Unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in foreign currency exchange rates are not cash flows. However, the effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents held or due in a foreign currency is reported in the statement of cash flows in order to reconcile cash and cash equivalents at the beginning and the end of the period. This amount is presented separately from cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities and includes the differences, if any, had those cash flows been reported at end of period exchange rates.
Interest and dividends
Cash flows from interest and dividends received and paid shall each be disclosed separately. Each shall be classified in a consistent manner from period to period as either operating, investing or financing activities.
The total amount of interest paid during a period is disclosed in the statement of cash flows whether it has been recognised as an expense in profit or loss or capitalised in accordance with IAS 23 Borrowing Costs.
Interest paid and interest and dividends received are usually classified as operating cash flows for a financial institution. However, there is no consensus on the classification of these cash flows for other entities. Interest paid and interest and dividends received may be classified as operating cash flows because they enter into the determination of profit or loss. Alternatively, interest paid and interest and dividends received may be classified as financing cash flows and investing cash flows respectively, because they are costs of obtaining financial resources or returns on investments.
Dividends paid may be classified as a financing cash flow because they are a cost of obtaining financial resources. Alternatively, dividends paid may be classified as a component of cash flows from operating activities in order to assist users to determine the ability of an entity to pay dividends out of operating cash flows.
Cash flows arising from taxes on income shall be separately disclosed and shall be classified as cash flows from operating activities unless they can be specifically identified with financing and investing activities.
Taxes on income arise on transactions that give rise to cash flows that are classified as operating, investing or financing activities in a statement of cash flows. While tax expense may be readily identifiable with investing or financing activities, the related tax cash flows are often impracticable to identify and may arise in a different period from the cash flows of the underlying transaction. Therefore, taxes paid are usually classified as cash flows from operating activities. However, when it is practicable to identify the tax cash flow with an individual transaction that gives rise to cash flows that are classified as investing or financing activities the tax cash flow is classified as an investing or financing activity as appropriate. When tax cash flows are allocated over more than one class of activity, the total amount of taxes paid is disclosed.
Investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures
When accounting for an investment in an associate, a joint venture or a subsidiary accounted for by use of the equity or cost method, an investor restricts its reporting in the statement of cash flows to the cash flows between itself and the investee, for example, to dividends and advances.
An entity that reports its interest in an associate or a joint venture using the equity method includes in its statement of cash flows the cash flows in respect of its investments in the associate or joint venture, and distributions and other payments or receipts between it and the associate or joint venture.
Changes in ownership interests in subsidiaries and other
The aggregate cash flows arising from obtaining or losing control of subsidiaries or other businesses shall be presented separately and classified as investing activities.
An entity shall disclose, in aggregate, in respect of both obtaining and losing control of subsidiaries or other businesses during the period each
of the following:
the total consideration paid or received
the portion of the consideration consisting of cash and cash
the amount of cash and cash equivalents in the subsidiaries or
other businesses over which control is obtained or lost; and
the amount of the assets and liabilities other than cash or cash
equivalents in the subsidiaries or other businesses over which
control is obtained or lost, summarised by each major category.
An investment entity, as defined in IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements, need not apply paragraphs 40(c) or 40(d) to an investment in a subsidiary that is required to be measured at fair value through profit or loss.
The separate presentation of the cash flow effects of obtaining or losing control of subsidiaries or other businesses as single line items, together with the separate disclosure of the amounts of assets and liabilities acquired or disposed of, helps to distinguish those cash flows from the cash flows arising from the other operating, investing and financing activities. The cash flow effects of losing control are not deducted from those of obtaining control.
The aggregate amount of the cash paid or received as consideration for obtaining or losing control of subsidiaries or other businesses is reported in the statement of cash flows net of cash and cash equivalents acquired or disposed of as part of such transactions, events or changes in circumstances.
Cash flows arising from changes in ownership interests in a subsidiary that do not result in a loss of control shall be classified as cash flows from financing activities, unless the subsidiary is held by an investment entity, as defined in IFRS 10, and is required to be measured at fair value through profit or loss.
Changes in ownership interests in a subsidiary that do not result in a loss of control, such as the subsequent purchase or sale by a parent of a subsidiary's equity instruments, are accounted for as equity transactions (see IFRS 10), unless the subsidiary is held by an investment entity and is required to be measured at fair value through profit or loss. Accordingly, the resulting cash flows are classified in the same way as other transactions with owners described in paragraph 17.
Investing and financing transactions that do not require the use of cash or cash equivalents shall be excluded from a statement of cash flows. Such transactions shall be disclosed elsewhere in the financial statements in a way that provides all the relevant information about these investing and financing activities.
Many investing and financing activities do not have a direct impact on current cash flows although they do affect the capital and asset structure of an entity. The exclusion of non-cash transactions from the statement of cash flows is consistent with the objective of a statement of cash flows as these items do not involve cash flows in the current period. Examples of non-cash transactions are:
(a) the acquisition of assets either by assuming directly related liabilities or
by means of a finance lease;
(b) the acquisition of an entity by means of an equity issue; and
(c) the conversion of debt to equity
Components of cash and cash equivalents
An entity shall disclose the components of cash and cash equivalents and shall present a reconciliation of the amounts in its statement of cash flows with the equivalent items reported in the statement of financial position.
In view of the variety of cash management practices and banking arrangements around the world and in order to comply with IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements, an entity discloses the policy which it adopts in determining the composition of cash and cash equivalents.
The effect of any change in the policy for determining components of cash and cash equivalents, for example, a change in the classification of financial instruments previously considered to be part of an entity's investment portfolio, is reported in accordance with IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.
An entity shall disclose, together with a commentary by management, the amount of significant cash and cash equivalent balances held by the entity that are not available for use by the group.
There are various circumstances in which cash and cash equivalent balances held by an entity are not available for use by the group. Examples include cash and cash equivalent balances held by a subsidiary that operates in a country where exchange controls or other legal restrictions apply when the balances are not available for general use by the parent or other subsidiaries.
Additional information may be relevant to users in understanding the financial position and liquidity of an entity. Disclosure of this information, together with
a commentary by management, is encouraged and may include:
the amount of undrawn borrowing facilities that may be available for future operating activities and to settle capital commitments, indicating
any restrictions on the use of these facilities;
the aggregate amount of cash flows that represent increases in operating capacity separately from those cash flows that are required to maintain
operating capacity; and
the amount of the cash flows arising from the operating, investing and
financing activities of each reportable segment (see IFRS 8 Operating Segments).
The separate disclosure of cash flows that represent increases in operating
capacity and cash flows that are required to maintain operating capacity is useful in enabling the user to determine whether the entity is investing adequately in the maintenance of its operating capacity. An entity that does not
invest adequately in the maintenance of its operating capacity may be prejudicing future profitability for the sake of current liquidity and distributions to owners.
The disclosure of segmental cash flows enables users to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between the cash flows of the business as a whole and those of its component parts and the availability and variability of segmental cash flows.
This Standard becomes operative for financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 1994.
IAS 27 (as amended in 2008) amended paragraphs 39-42 and added paragraphs 42A and 42B. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2009. If an entity applies IAS 27 (amended 2008) for an earlier period, the amendments shall be applied for that earlier period. The amendments shall be applied retrospectively.
Paragraph 14 was amended by Improvements to IFRSs issued in May 2008. An entity shall apply that amendment for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies the amendment for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact and apply paragraph 68A of IAS 16.
Paragraph 16 was amended by Improvements to IFRSs issued in April 2009. An entity shall apply that amendment for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2010. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies the amendment for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact.
IFRS 10 and IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements, issued in May 2011, amended paragraphs 37, 38 and 42B and deleted paragraph 50(b). An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 10 and IFRS 11.
Investment Entities (Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 27), issued in October 2012, amended paragraphs 42A and 42B and added paragraph 40A. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2014. Earlier application of Investment Entities is permitted. If an entity
applies those amendments earlier it shall also apply all amendments included in
Investment Entities at the same time.
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