to the previous accounting period;
the amount (and expiry date, if any) of deductible temporary differences, unused tax losses, and unused tax credits for which no deferred tax asset is recognised in the statement of financial position;
the aggregate amount of temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and interests in joint arrangements, for which deferred tax liabilities have not
been recognised (see paragraph 39);
in respect of each type of temporary difference, and in respect of
each type of unused tax losses and unused tax credits:
the amount of the deferred tax assets and liabilities
recognised in the statement of financial position for each
the amount of the deferred tax income or expense
recognised in profit or loss, if this is not apparent from the changes in the amounts recognised in the statement of
in respect of discontinued operations, the tax expense relating to:
the gain or loss on discontinuance; and
the profit or loss from the ordinary activities of the
discontinued operation for the period, together with the
corresponding amounts for each prior period presented;
the amount of income tax consequences of dividends to
shareholders of the entity that were proposed or declared before the financial statements were authorised for issue, but are not
recognised as a liability in the financial statements;
if a business combination in which the entity is the acquirer
causes a change in the amount recognised for its pre-acquisition deferred tax asset (see paragraph 67), the amount of that change; and
if the deferred tax benefits acquired in a business combination are
not recognised at the acquisition date but are recognised after the acquisition date (see paragraph 68), a description of the event or change in circumstances that caused the deferred tax benefits to be recognised.
An entity shall disclose the amount of a deferred tax asset and the nature
of the evidence supporting its recognition, when:
the utilisation of the deferred tax asset is dependent on future
taxable profits in excess of the profits arising from the reversal of
existing taxable temporary differences; and
the entity has suffered a loss in either the current or preceding period in the tax jurisdiction to which the deferred tax asset relates.
In the circumstances described in paragraph 52A, an entity shall disclose the nature of the potential income tax consequences that would result from the payment of dividends to its shareholders. In addition, the entity shall disclose the amounts of the potential income tax consequences practicably determinable and whether there are any potential income tax consequences not practicably determinable.
The disclosures required by paragraph 81(c) enable users of financial statements to understand whether the relationship between tax expense (income) and accounting profit is unusual and to understand the significant factors that could affect that relationship in the future. The relationship between tax expense (income) and accounting profit may be affected by such factors as revenue that is exempt from taxation, expenses that are not deductible in determining taxable
profit (tax loss), the effect of tax losses and the effect of foreign tax rates.
In explaining the relationship between tax expense (income) and accounting profit, an entity uses an applicable tax rate that provides the most meaningful information to the users of its financial statements. Often, the most meaningful rate is the domestic rate of tax in the country in which the entity is domiciled, aggregating the tax rate applied for national taxes with the rates applied for any local taxes which are computed on a substantially similar level of taxable profit
(tax loss). However, for an entity operating in several jurisdictions, it may be more meaningful to aggregate separate reconciliations prepared using the domestic rate in each individual jurisdiction. The following example illustrates how the selection of the applicable tax rate affects the presentation of the numerical reconciliation.
Example illustrating paragraph 85
In 19X2, an entity has accounting profit in its own jurisdiction (country A) of 1,500 (19X1: 2,000) and in country B of 1,500 (19X1: 500). The tax rate is
30% in country A and 20% in country B. In country A, expenses of 100 (19X1: 200) are not deductible for tax purposes.
The following is an example of a reconciliation to the domestic tax rate.
Tax at the domestic rate of 30%
Tax effect of expenses that are not deductible for
Effect of lower tax rates in country B
The following is an example of a reconciliation prepared by aggregating separate
reconciliations for each national jurisdiction. Under this method, the effect of
differences between the reporting entity's own domestic tax rate and the domestic tax
rate in other jurisdictions does not appear as a separate item in the reconciliation. An entity may need to discuss the effect of significant changes in either tax rates, or the mix of profits earned in different jurisdictions, in order to explain changes in the applicable tax rate(s), as required by paragraph 81(d).
Tax at the domestic rates applicable to profits in the
Tax effect of expenses that are not deductible for
The average effective tax rate is the tax expense (income) divided by the accounting profit.
It would often be impracticable to compute the amount of unrecognised deferred tax liabilities arising from investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and interests in joint arrangements (see paragraph 39). Therefore, this Standard requires an entity to disclose the aggregate amount of the underlying temporary differences but does not require disclosure of the deferred tax liabilities. Nevertheless, where practicable, entities are encouraged to
disclose the amounts of the unrecognised deferred tax liabilities because financial statement users may find such information useful.
Paragraph 82A requires an entity to disclose the nature of the potential income tax consequences that would result from the payment of dividends to its shareholders. An entity discloses the important features of the income tax systems and the factors that will affect the amount of the potential income tax consequences of dividends.
It would sometimes not be practicable to compute the total amount of the potential income tax consequences that would result from the payment of dividends to shareholders. This may be the case, for example, where an entity
has a large number of foreign subsidiaries. However, even in such
circumstances, some portions of the total amount may be easily determinable. For example, in a consolidated group, a parent and some of its subsidiaries may have paid income taxes at a higher rate on undistributed profits and be aware of the amount that would be refunded on the payment of future dividends to shareholders from consolidated retained earnings. In this case, that refundable amount is disclosed. If applicable, the entity also discloses that there are additional potential income tax consequences not practicably determinable. In the parent's separate financial statements, if any, the disclosure of the potential income tax consequences relates to the parent's retained earnings.
An entity required to provide the disclosures in paragraph 82A may also be required to provide disclosures related to temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates or interests in joint arrangements. In such cases, an entity considers this in determining the information to be disclosed under paragraph 82A. For example, an entity may be required to disclose the aggregate amount of temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries for which no deferred tax liabilities have been recognised (see paragraph 81(f)). If it is impracticable to compute the amounts of unrecognised deferred tax liabilities (see paragraph 87) there may be amounts of potential income tax consequences of dividends not practicably determinable related to these subsidiaries.
An entity discloses any tax-related contingent liabilities and contingent assets in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets.
Contingent liabilities and contingent assets may arise, for example, from unresolved disputes with the taxation authorities. Similarly, where changes in tax rates or tax laws are enacted or announced after the reporting period, an entity discloses any significant effect of those changes on its current and
deferred tax assets and liabilities (see IAS 10 Events after the Reporting Period).
This Standard becomes operative for financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 1998, except as specified in paragraph 91. If an entity applies this Standard for financial statements covering periods beginning before 1 January 1998, the entity shall disclose the fact it has applied this Standard instead of IAS 12 Accounting for Taxes on Income, approved in 1979.
This Standard supersedes IAS 12 Accounting for Taxes on Income, approved in 1979.
Paragraphs 52A, 52B, 65A, 81(i), 82A, 87A, 87B, 87C and the deletion of paragraphs 3 and 50 become operative for annual financial statements3 covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2001. Earlier adoption is encouraged. If earlier adoption affects the financial statements, an entity shall disclose that fact.
IAS 1 (as revised in 2007) amended the terminology used throughout IFRSs. In addition it amended paragraphs 23, 52, 58, 60, 62, 63, 65, 68C, 77 and 81, deleted paragraph 61 and added paragraphs 61A, 62A and 77A. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. If an entity applies IAS 1 (revised 2007) for an earlier period, the amendments shall be applied for that earlier period.
Paragraph 68 shall be applied prospectively from the effective date of IFRS 3 (as revised in 2008) to the recognition of deferred tax assets acquired in business combinations.
Therefore, entities shall not adjust the accounting for prior business combinations if tax benefits failed to satisfy the criteria for separate recognition as of the acquisition date and are recognised after the acquisition date, unless the benefits are recognised within the measurement period and result from new information about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date. Other tax benefits recognised shall be recognised in profit or loss (or, if this Standard so requires, outside profit or loss).
IFRS 3 (as revised in 2008) amended paragraphs 21 and 67 and added paragraphs 32A and 81(j) and (k). An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2009. If an entity applies IFRS 3 (revised 2008) for an earlier period, the amendments shall also be applied for that earlier period.
Paragraph 52 was renumbered as 51A, paragraph 10 and the examples following paragraph 51A were amended, and paragraphs 51B and 51C and the following example and paragraphs 51D, 51E and 99 were added by Deferred Tax: Recovery of Underlying Assets, issued in December 2010. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2012. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies the amendments for an earlier period, it shall disclose that fact.
IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements, issued in May 2011, amended paragraphs 2, 15, 18(e), 24, 38, 39, 43-45, 81(f), 87 and 87C. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 11.
Presentation of Items of Other Comprehensive Income (Amendments to IAS 1), issued in June 2011, amended paragraph 77 and deleted paragraph 77A. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IAS 1 as amended in June 2011.
Paragraph 91 refers to 'annual financial statements' in line with more explicit language for writing
effective dates adopted in 1998. Paragraph 89 refers to 'financial statements'.
Investment Entities (Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 27), issued in October
2012, amended paragraphs 58 and 68C. An entity shall apply those
amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2014. Earlier application of Investment Entities is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments earlier it shall also apply all amendments included in Investment Entities at the same time.
IFRS 9, as amended in November 2013, amended paragraph 20 and deleted
paragraphs 96 and 97. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 9 as amended in November 2013.
Withdrawal of SIC-21
The amendments made by Deferred Tax: Recovery of Underlying Assets, issued in
December 2010, supersede SIC Interpretation 21 Income Taxes—Recovery of Revalued Non-Depreciable Assets.
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