An investee is created to purchase a portfolio of fixed rate asset-backed
securities, funded by fixed rate debt instruments and equity instruments. The equity instruments are designed to provide first loss protection to the
debt investors and receive any residual returns of the investee. The
transaction was marketed to potential debt investors as an investment in a
portfolio of asset-backed securities with exposure to the credit risk associated
with the possible default of the issuers of the asset-backed securities in the
portfolio and to the interest rate risk associated with the management of the portfolio. On formation, the equity instruments represent 10 per cent of the value of the assets purchased. A decision maker (the asset manager) manages
the active asset portfolio by making investment decisions within the
parameters set out in the investee's prospectus. For those services, the asset
manager receives a market-based fixed fee (ie 1 per cent of assets under
management) and performance-related fees (ie 10 per cent of profits) if the investee's profits exceed a specified level. The fees are commensurate with the services provided. The asset manager holds 35 per cent of the equity in
the investee. The remaining 65 per cent of the equity, and all the debt
instruments, are held by a large number of widely dispersed unrelated third
party investors. The asset manager can be removed, without cause, by a simple majority decision of the other investors.
The asset manager is paid fixed and performance-related fees that are
commensurate with the services provided. The remuneration aligns the
interests of the fund manager with those of the other investors to increase
the value of the fund. The asset manager has exposure to variability of
returns from the activities of the fund because it holds 35 per cent of the equity and from its remuneration.
Although operating within the parameters set out in the investee's
prospectus, the asset manager has the current ability to make investment
decisions that significantly affect the investee's returns—the removal rights held by the other investors receive little weighting in the analysis because
those rights are held by a large number of widely dispersed investors. In this
example, the asset manager places greater emphasis on its exposure to
variability of returns of the fund from its equity interest, which is
subordinate to the debt instruments. Holding 35 per cent of the equity
creates subordinated exposure to losses and rights to returns of the investee,
which are of such significance that it indicates that the asset manager is a principal. Thus, the asset manager concludes that it controls the investee.
A decision maker (the sponsor) sponsors a multi-seller conduit, which issues
short-term debt instruments to unrelated third party investors. The
transaction was marketed to potential investors as an investment in a
portfolio of highly rated medium-term assets with minimal exposure to the credit risk associated with the possible default by the issuers of the assets in
the portfolio. Various transferors sell high quality medium-term asset
portfolios to the conduit. Each transferor services the portfolio of assets that it sells to the conduit and manages receivables on default for a market-based servicing fee. Each transferor also provides first loss protection against credit
losses from its asset portfolio through over-collateralisation of the assets
transferred to the conduit. The sponsor establishes the terms of the conduit and manages the operations of the conduit for a market-based fee. The fee is
commensurate with the services provided. The sponsor approves the sellers permitted to sell to the conduit, approves the assets to be purchased by the
conduit and makes decisions about the funding of the conduit. The sponsor must act in the best interests of all investors.
The sponsor is entitled to any residual return of the conduit and also
provides credit enhancement and liquidity facilities to the conduit. The credit enhancement provided by the sponsor absorbs losses of up to 5 per cent of all of the conduit's assets, after losses are absorbed by the transferors. The liquidity facilities are not advanced against defaulted assets. The investors do not hold substantive rights that could affect the decision-making authority of the sponsor.
Even though the sponsor is paid a market-based fee for its services that is commensurate with the services provided, the sponsor has exposure to variability of returns from the activities of the conduit because of its rights to any residual returns of the conduit and the provision of credit enhancement and liquidity facilities (ie the conduit is exposed to liquidity risk by using short-term debt instruments to fund medium-term assets). Even though each of the transferors has decision-making rights that affect the value of the assets of the conduit, the sponsor has extensive decision-making authority that gives it the current ability to direct the activities that mostsignificantly affect the conduit's returns (ie the sponsor established the terms
of the conduit, has the right to make decisions about the assets (approving the assets purchased and the transferors of those assets) and the funding of the conduit (for which new investment must be found on a regular basis)).
The right to residual returns of the conduit and the provision of credit
enhancement and liquidity facilities expose the sponsor to variability of
returns from the activities of the conduit that is different from that of the other investors. Accordingly, that exposure indicates that the sponsor is a principal and thus the sponsor concludes that it controls the conduit. The sponsor's obligation to act in the best interest of all investors does not prevent the sponsor from being a principalRelationship with other parties When assessing control, an investor shall consider the nature of its relationship with other parties and whether those other parties are acting on the investor's behalf (ie they are 'de facto agents'). The determination of whether other parties are acting as de facto agents requires judgement, considering not only the nature of the relationship but also how those parties interact with each other and the investor.
Such a relationship need not involve a contractual arrangement. A party is a de facto agent when the investor has, or those that direct the activities of the investor have, the ability to direct that party to act on the investor's behalf. In these circumstances, the investor shall consider its de facto agent's decision-making rights and its indirect exposure, or rights, to variable returns through the de facto agent together with its own when assessing control of an investee.
The following are examples of such other parties that, by the nature of their relationship, might act as de facto agents for the investor: the investor's related parties.
a party that received its interest in the investee as a contribution or loan from the investor.
a party that has agreed not to sell, transfer or encumber its interests in the investee without the investor's prior approval (except for situations in which the investor and the other party have the right of prior approval and the rights are based on mutually agreed terms by willing independent parties).
a party that cannot finance its operations without subordinated financial support from the investor.
an investee for which the majority of the members of its governing body
or for which its key management personnel are the same as those of the investor.
a party that has a close business relationship with the investor, such as the relationship between a professional service provider and one of its significant clients.
Control of specified assets
An investor shall consider whether it treats a portion of an investee as a deemed
separate entity and, if so, whether it controls the deemed separate entity.
An investor shall treat a portion of an investee as a deemed separate entity if and
only if the following condition is satisfied:
Specified assets of the investee (and related credit enhancements, if any) are the only source of payment for specified liabilities of, or specified other interests in, the investee. Parties other than those with the specified liability do not have rights or obligations related to the specified assets or to residual cash flows from those assets. In substance, none of the returns from the specified assets can be used by the
remaining investee and none of the liabilities of the deemed separate entity are payable from the assets of the remaining investee. Thus, in substance, all the assets, liabilities and equity of that deemed separate entity are ring-fenced from the overall investee. Such a deemed separate entity is often called a 'silo'.
When the condition in paragraph B77 is satisfied, an investor shall identify the activities that significantly affect the returns of the deemed separate entity and how those activities are directed in order to assess whether it has power over that portion of the investee. When assessing control of the deemed separate entity, the investor shall also consider whether it has exposure or rights to variable returns from its involvement with that deemed separate entity and the ability to use its power over that portion of the investee to affect the amount of the investor's returns.
If the investor controls the deemed separate entity, the investor shall consolidate that portion of the investee. In that case, other parties exclude that portion of the investee when assessing control of, and in consolidating, the investee.
An investor shall reassess whether it controls an investee if facts and
circumstances indicate that there are changes to one or more of the three elements of control listed in paragraph 7.
If there is a change in how power over an investee can be exercised, that change must be reflected in how an investor assesses its power over an investee. For example, changes to decision-making rights can mean that the relevant activities are no longer directed through voting rights, but instead other agreements, such as contracts, give another party or parties the current ability to direct the relevant activities.
An event can cause an investor to gain or lose power over an investee without the investor being involved in that event. For example, an investor can gain power over an investee because decision-making rights held by another party or parties that previously prevented the investor from controlling an investee have lapsed.
An investor also considers changes affecting its exposure, or rights, to variable returns from its involvement with an investee. For example, an investor that has power over an investee can lose control of an investee if the investor ceases to be entitled to receive returns or to be exposed to obligations, because the investor would fail to satisfy paragraph 7(b) (eg if a contract to receive performance-related fees is terminated).
An investor shall consider whether its assessment that it acts as an agent or a principal has changed. Changes in the overall relationship between the investor and other parties can mean that an investor no longer acts as an agent, even though it has previously acted as an agent, and vice versa. For example, if changes to the rights of the investor, or of other parties, occur, the investor shall reconsider its status as a principal or an agent.
An investor's initial assessment of control or its status as a principal or an agent would not change simply because of a change in market conditions (eg a change
The definition of an investment entity requires that the purpose of the entity is
to invest solely for capital appreciation, investment income (such as dividends, interest or rental income), or both. Documents that indicate what the entity's investment objectives are, such as the entity's offering memorandum, publications distributed by the entity and other corporate or partnership documents, will typically provide evidence of an investment entity's business purpose. Further evidence may include the manner in which the entity presents itself to other parties (such as potential investors or potential investees); for example, an entity may present its business as providing medium-term investment for capital appreciation. In contrast, an entity that presents itself as an investor whose objective is to jointly develop, produce or market products with its investees has a business purpose that is inconsistent with the business purpose of an investment entity, because the entity will earn returns from the development, production or marketing activity as well as from its investments (see paragraph B85I).
An investment entity may provide investment-related services (eg investment advisory services, investment management, investment support and administrative services), either directly or through a subsidiary, to third parties
as well as to its investors, even if those activities are substantial to the entity.
An investment entity may also participate in the following investment-related activities, either directly or through a subsidiary, if these activities are undertaken to maximise the investment return (capital appreciation or investment income) from its investees and do not represent a separate substantial business activity or a separate substantial source of income to the
(a) poviding management services and strategic advice to an investee; and
(b) providing financial support to an investee, such as a loan, capital
commitment or guarantee.
If an investment entity has a subsidiary that provides investment-related services
or activities, such as those described in paragraphs B85C-B85D, to the entity or other parties, it shall consolidate that subsidiary in accordance with paragraph 32.
An entity's investment plans also provide evidence of its business purpose. One feature that differentiates an investment entity from other entities is that an investment entity does not plan to hold its investments indefinitely; it holds them for a limited period. Because equity investments and non-financial asset investments have the potential to be held indefinitely, an investment entity shall have an exit strategy documenting how the entity plans to realise capital appreciation from substantially all of its equity investments and non-financial asset investments. An investment entity shall also have an exit strategy for any debt instruments that have the potential to be held indefinitely, for example perpetual debt investments. The entity need not document specific exit strategies for each individual investment but shall identify different potential strategies for different types or portfolios of investments, including a substantive time frame for exiting the investments. Exit mechanisms that are only put in place for default events, such as a breach of contract or non-performance, are not considered exit strategies for the purpose of this assessment.
Exit strategies can vary by type of investment. For investments in private equity securities, examples of exit strategies include an initial public offering, a private placement, a trade sale of a business, distributions (to investors) of ownership interests in investees and sales of assets (including the sale of an investee's assets followed by a liquidation of the investee). For equity investments that are traded in a public market, examples of exit strategies include selling the investment in a private placement or in a public market. For real estate investments, an example of an exit strategy includes the sale of the real estate through specialised property dealers or the open market.
An investment entity may have an investment in another investment entity that is formed in connection with the entity for legal, regulatory, tax or similar business reasons. In this case, the investment entity investor need not have an exit strategy for that investment, provided that the investment entity investee has appropriate exit strategies for its investments.
Earnings from investments
An entity is not investing solely for capital appreciation, investment income, or both, if the entity or another member of the group containing the entity (ie the group that is controlled by the investment entity's ultimate parent) obtains, or has the objective of obtaining, other benefits from the entity's investments that are not available to other parties that are not related to the investee. Such
the acquisition, use, exchange or exploitation of the processes, assets or
technology of an investee. This would include the entity or another group member having disproportionate, or exclusive, rights to acquire assets, technology, products or services of any investee; for example, by holding an option to purchase an asset from an investee if the asset's
development is deemed successful;
An investment entity may have a strategy to invest in more than one investee in the same industry, market or geographical area in order to benefit from synergies that increase the capital appreciation and investment income from those investees. Notwithstanding paragraph B85I(e), an entity is not disqualified from being classified as an investment entity merely because such investees trade with each other.
Fair value measurement
An essential element of the definition of an investment entity is that it measures
and evaluates the performance of substantially all of its investments on a fair value basis, because using fair value results in more relevant information than, for example, consolidating its subsidiaries or using the equity method for its interests in associates or joint ventures. In order to demonstrate that it meets
this element of the definition, an investment entity:
provides investors with fair value information and measures substantially all of its investments at fair value in its financial statements whenever fair value is required or permitted in accordance with IFRSs; and reports fair value information internally to the entity's key management
personnel (as defined in IAS 24), who use fair value as the primary measurement attribute to evaluate the performance of substantially all of its investments and to make investment decisions.
In order to meet the requirement in B85K(a), an investment entity would:
(a) elect to account for any investment property using the fair value model
in IAS 40 Investment Property;
An investment entity may have some non-investment assets, such as a head office property and related equipment, and may also have financial liabilities. The fair value measurement element of the definition of an investment entity in paragraph 27(c) applies to an investment entity's investments. Accordingly, an investment entity need not measure its non-investment assets or its liabilities at fair value.
Typical characteristics of an investment entity
In determining whether it meets the definition of an investment entity, an
entity shall consider whether it displays the typical characteristics of one (see paragraph 28). The absence of one or more of these typical characteristics does not necessarily disqualify an entity from being classified as an investment entity but indicates that additional judgement is required in determining whether the entity is an investment entity.
More than one investment
An investment entity typically holds several investments to diversify its risk and maximise its returns. An entity may hold a portfolio of investments directly or indirectly, for example by holding a single investment in another investment entity that itself holds several investments.
There may be times when the entity holds a single investment. However, holding a single investment does not necessarily prevent an entity from meeting the definition of an investment entity. For example, an investment entity may
hold only a single investment when the entity:
is in its start-up period and has not yet identified suitable investments and, therefore, has not yet executed its investment plan to acquire several investments; has not yet made other investments to replace those it has disposed of; is established to pool investors' funds to invest in a single investment when that investment is unobtainable by individual investors (eg when the required minimum investment is too high for an individual investor); or is in the process of liquidation.
More than one investor
Typically, an investment entity would have several investors who pool their funds to gain access to investment management services and investment opportunities that they might not have had access to individually. Having several investors would make it less likely that the entity, or other members of the group containing the entity, would obtain benefits other than capital appreciation or investment income (see paragraph B85I).
Alternatively, an investment entity may be formed by, or for, a single investor that represents or supports the interests of a wider group of investors (eg a pension fund, government investment fund or family trust).
There may also be times when the entity temporarily has a single investor. For example, an investment entity may have only a single investor when the entity:
is within its initial offering period, which has not expired and the entity is actively identifying suitable investors; has not yet identified suitable investors to replace ownership interests that have been redeemed; or is in the process of liquidation.
Typically, an investment entity has several investors that are not related parties (as defined in IAS 24) of the entity or other members of the group containing the entity. Having unrelated investors would make it less likely that the entity, or other members of the group containing the entity, would obtain benefits other than capital appreciation or investment income (see paragraph B85I).
However, an entity may still qualify as an investment entity even though its investors are related to the entity. For example, an investment entity may set up a separate 'parallel' fund for a group of its employees (such as key management personnel) or other related party investor(s), which mirrors the investments of the entity's main investment fund. This 'parallel' fund may qualify as an investment entity even though all of its investors are related parties.
An investment entity is typically, but is not required to be, a separate legal entity. Ownership interests in an investment entity are typically in the form of equity or similar interests (eg partnership interests), to which proportionate shares of the net assets of the investment entity are attributed. However, having different classes of investors, some of which have rights only to a specific investment or groups of investments or which have different proportionate shares of the net assets, does not preclude an entity from being an investment entity.
In addition, an entity that has significant ownership interests in the form of debt that, in accordance with other applicable IFRSs, does not meet the definition of equity, may still qualify as an investment entity, provided that the debt holders are exposed to variable returns from changes in the fair value of the entity's net assets.
offset (eliminate) the carrying amount of the parent's investment in each subsidiary and the parent's portion of equity of each subsidiary (IFRS 3 explains how to account for any related goodwill). eliminate in full intragroup assets and liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows relating to transactions between entities of the group (profits or losses resulting from intragroup transactions that are recognised in assets, such as inventory and fixed assets, are eliminated in full). Intragroup losses may indicate an impairment that requires recognition in the consolidated financial statements. IAS 12 Income Taxes applies to temporary differences that arise from the elimination of profits and losses resulting from intragroup transactions.
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