International Financial Reporting Standard 13
Fair Value Measurement

 

 

In May 2011 the International Accounting Standards Board issued IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement. IFRS 13 defines fair value and replaces the requirement contained in individual Standards. Other IFRSs have made minor consequential amendments to IFRS 13. They include IAS 19 Employee Benefits (issued June 2011), Investment Entities (Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 27) (issued October 2012), Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2010-2012 Cycle (issued December 2013) and Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2011-2013 Cycle (issued December 2013).

from paragraph

IN1

 

 

 

1

5

9

9

11

15

22

24

27

34

 

 

48

 

57

61

 

67

72

91

 

CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARD 13

FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT

 

OBJECTIVE

SCOPE

MEASUREMENT

Definition of fair value

The asset or liability

The transaction

Market participants

The price

Application to non-financial assets

Application to liabilities and an entity's own equity instruments

Application to financial assets and financial liabilities with offsetting

positions in market risks or counterparty credit risk

Fair value at initial recognition

Valuation techniques

Inputs to valuation techniques

Fair value hierarchy

DISCLOSURE APPENDICES

A Defined terms

B Application guidance

International Financial Reporting Standard 13 Fair Value Measurement (IFRS 13) is set out in paragraphs 1-99 and Appendices A-D. All the paragraphs have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type state the main principles. Terms defined in Appendix A are in italics the first time they appear in the IFRS. Definitions of other terms are given in the

Glossary for International Financial Reporting Standards. IFRS 13 should be read in the

context of its objective and the Basis for Conclusions, the Preface to International Financial Reporting Standards and the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting. IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors provides a basis for selecting and applying accounting policies in the absence of explicit guidance

International Financial Reporting Standard 13 Fair Value Measurement (IFRS 13):

(a)    defines fair value;

(b)  sets out in a single IFRS a framework for measuring fair value; and

(c)  requires disclosures about fair value measurements.

The IFRS applies to IFRSs that require or permit fair value measurements or disclosures about fair value measurements (and measurements, such as fair value less costs to sell, based on fair value or disclosures about those measurements), except in specified circumstances.

The IFRS is to be applied for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013. Earlier application is permitted.

The IFRS explains how to measure fair value for financial reporting. It does not require fair value measurements in addition to those already required or permitted by other IFRSs and is not intended to establish valuation standards or affect valuation practices outside financial reporting

Some IFRSs require or permit entities to measure or disclose the fair value of assets, liabilities or their own equity instruments. Because those IFRSs were developed over many years, the requirements for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements were dispersed and in

many cases did not articulate a clear measurement or disclosure objective.

As a result, some of those IFRSs contained limited guidance about how to measure fair value, whereas others contained extensive guidance and that guidance was not always consistent across those IFRSs that refer to fair value. Inconsistencies in the requirements for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements have contributed to diversity in practice and have reduced the comparability of information reported in financial statements. IFRS 13 remedies that situation.

Furthermore, in 2006 the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the US national standard-setter, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), published a Memorandum of Understanding, which has served as the foundation of the boards' efforts to create a common set of high quality global accounting standards. Consistent with the Memorandum of Understanding and the boards' commitment to achieving that goal, IFRS 13 is the result of the work by the IASB and the FASB to develop common requirements for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements in

accordance with IFRSs and US generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

IFRS 13 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (ie an exit price).

That definition of fair value emphasises that fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement. When measuring fair value, an entity uses the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability under current market conditions, including assumptions about risk. As a result, an entity's intention to hold an asset or to settle or otherwise fulfil a liability is not relevant when measuring fair value.

The IFRS explains that a fair value measurement requires an entity to determine the following: the particular asset or liability being measured; for a non-financial asset, the highest and best use of the asset and whether the asset is used in combination with other assets or on a stand-alone basis;  the market in which an orderly transaction would take place for the asset or liability; and the appropriate valuation technique(s) to use when measuring fair value. The valuation technique(s) used should maximise the use of relevant observable inputs and minimise unobservable inputs. Those inputs should be consistent with the inputs a market participant would use when pricing the asset or liability.

Fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement. For some assets and liabilities, observable market transactions or market information might be available. For other assets and liabilities, observable market transactions and market information might not be available. However, the objective of a fair value measurement in both cases is the same—to estimate the price at which an orderly transaction to sell the asset or to transfer the liability would take place between market participants at the measurement date under current market conditions (ie an exit price at the measurement date from the

perspective of a market participant that holds the asset or owes the liability).

When a price for an identical asset or liability is not observable, an entity measures fair value using another valuation technique that maximises the use of relevant observable inputs and minimises the use of unobservable inputs. Because

fair value is a market-based measurement, it is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, including assumptions about risk. As a result, an entity's intention to hold an asset or to

settle or otherwise fulfil a liability is not relevant when measuring fair value.

The definition of fair value focuses on assets and liabilities because they are a primary subject of accounting measurement. In addition, this IFRS shall be applied to an entity's own equity instruments measured at fair value

Definition of fair value

This IFRS defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an

asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

Paragraph B2 describes the overall fair value measurement approach.

The asset or liability A fair value measurement is for a particular asset or liability. Therefore, when measuring fair value an entity shall take into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Such characteristics include, for example, thefollowing:

(a)       the condition and location of the asset; and

(b)          restrictions, if any, on the sale or use of the asset

The transaction A fair value measurement assumes that the asset or liability is exchanged

in an orderly transaction between market participants to sell the asset or transfer the liability at the measurement date under current market conditions.

A fair value measurement assumes that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

(a)       in the principal market for the asset or liability; or

(b)       in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability.

An entity need not undertake an exhaustive search of all possible markets to identify the principal market or, in the absence of a principal market, the most advantageous market, but it shall take into account all information that is reasonably available. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, the market in which the entity would normally enter into a transaction to sell the asset or to transfer the liability is presumed to be the principal market or, in the absence of a principal market, the most advantageous market.

If there is a principal market for the asset or liability, the fair value measurement shall represent the price in that market (whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique), even if the price in a different market is potentially more advantageous at the measurement date.

The entity must have access to the principal (or most advantageous) market at the measurement date. Because different entities (and businesses within those entities) with different activities may have access to different markets, the principal (or most advantageous) market for the same asset or liability might be different for different entities (and businesses within those entities). Therefore, the principal (or most advantageous) market (and thus, market participants) shall be considered from the perspective of the entity, thereby allowing for differences between and among entities with different activities.

Although an entity must be able to access the market, the entity does not need to be able to sell the particular asset or transfer the particular liability on the measurement date to be able to measure fair value on the basis of the price in that market.

Even when there is no observable market to provide pricing information about the sale of an asset or the transfer of a liability at the measurement date, a fair value measurement shall assume that a transaction takes place at that date, considered from the perspective of a market participant that holds the asset or owes the liability. That assumed transaction establishes a basis for estimating the price to sell the asset or to transfer the liability.

Market participants

An entity shall measure the fair value of an asset or a liability using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

In developing those assumptions, an entity need not identify specific market participants. Rather, the entity shall identify characteristics that distinguish

market participants generally, considering factors specific to all the following:

(a)        the asset or liability;

(b)        the principal (or most advantageous) market for the asset or liability; and

(c)        market participants with whom the entity would enter into a transaction in that market.

The price Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to

transfer a liability in an orderly transaction in the principal (or most advantageous) market at the measurement date under current market conditions (ie an exit price) regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique.

The price in the principal (or most advantageous) market used to measure the fair value of the asset or liability shall not be adjusted for transaction costs.

Transaction costs shall be accounted for in accordance with other IFRSs. Transaction costs are not a characteristic of an asset or a liability; rather, they are specific to a transaction and will differ depending on how an entity enters into a transaction for the asset or liability.

Transaction costs do not include transport costs. If location is a characteristic of the asset (as might be the case, for example, for a commodity), the price in the principal (or most advantageous) market shall be adjusted for the costs, if any, that would be incurred to transport the asset from its current location to that market.

Application to non-financial assets  Highest and best use for non-financial assets

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant's ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market

participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.

The highest and best use of a non-financial asset takes into account the use of the asset that is physically possible, legally permissible and financially feasible, as follows:

    A use that is physically possible takes into account the physical

characteristics of the asset that market participants would take into

account when pricing the asset (eg the location or size of a property).

A use that is legally permissible takes into account any legal restrictions on the use of the asset that market participants would take into account when pricing the asset (eg the zoning regulations applicable to a property).

A use that is financially feasible takes into account whether a use of the asset that is physically possible and legally permissible generates adequate income or cash flows (taking into account the costs of converting the asset to that use) to produce an investment return that market participants would require from an investment in that asset put to that use.

Highest and best use is determined from the perspective of market participants, even if the entity intends a different use. However, an entity's current use of a non-financial asset is presumed to be its highest and best use unless market or other factors suggest that a different use by market participants would maximise the value of the asset.

To protect its competitive position, or for other reasons, an entity may intend not to use an acquired non-financial asset actively or it may intend not to use the asset according to its highest and best use. For example, that might be the case for an acquired intangible asset that the entity plans to use defensively by preventing others from using it. Nevertheless, the entity shall measure the fair value of a non-financial asset assuming its highest and best use by market participants.

Valuation premise for non-financial assets

The highest and best use of a non-financial asset establishes the valuation premise used to measure the fair value of the asset, as follows: (a)   

    The highest and best use of a non-financial asset might provide maximum value to market participants through its use in combination with other assets as a group (as installed or otherwise configured for use) or in combination with other assets and liabilities (eg a business)

If the highest and best use of the asset is to use the asset in combination with other assets or with other assets and liabilities, the fair value of the asset is the price that would be received in a current transaction to sell the asset assuming that the asset would be used with other assets or with other assets and liabilities and that those assets and liabilities (ie its complementary assets and the associated liabilities) would be available to market participants.

Liabilities associated with the asset and with the complementary

assets include liabilities that fund working capital, but do not include liabilities used to fund assets other than those within the group of assets.

Assumptions about the highest and best use of a non-financial

asset shall be consistent for all the assets (for which highest and best use is relevant) of the group of assets or the group of assets and liabilities within which the asset would be used.The highest and best use of a non-financial asset might provide maximum value to market participants on a stand-alone basis. If the highest and best use of the asset is to use it on a stand-alone basis, the fair value of the asset is the price that would be received in a current transaction to sell the asset to market participants that would use the asset on a stand-alone basis.

The fair value measurement of a non-financial asset assumes that the asset is sold consistently with the unit of account specified in other IFRSs (which may be an individual asset). That is the case even when that fair value measurement assumes that the highest and best use of the asset is to use it in combination with other assets or with other assets and liabilities because a fair value measurement assumes that the market participant already holds the complementary assets and the associated liabilities.

Paragraph B3 describes the application of the valuation premise concept for non-financial assets.

Application to liabilities and an entity's own equity instruments

General principles

 A fair value measurement assumes that a financial or non-financial liability or an entity's own equity instrument (eg equity interests issued as consideration in a business combination) is transferred to a market participant at the measurement date. The transfer of a liability or an entity's own equity instrument assumes the following:

A liability would remain outstanding and the market participant transferee would be required to fulfil the obligation. The liability would not be settled with the counterparty or otherwise extinguished on the measurement date.

 

An entity's own equity instrument would remain outstanding and the market participant transferee would take on the rights and responsibilities associated with the instrument. The instrument would not be cancelled or otherwise extinguished on the measurement date.

 

Even when there is no observable market to provide pricing information about the transfer of a liability or an entity's own equity instrument (eg because contractual or other legal restrictions prevent the transfer of such items), there might be an observable market for such items if they are held by other parties as assets (eg a corporate bond or a call option on an entity's shares).

In all cases, an entity shall maximise the use of relevant observable inputs and minimise the use of unobservable inputs to meet the objective of a fair value measurement, which is to estimate the price at which an orderly transaction to transfer the liability or equity instrument would take place between market participants at the measurement date under current market conditions.

 

صفحه           2             4

ما را حمایت کنید:

کد +1 گوگل
فا تولز ، ابزار رایگان وبمسترکد امتیاز +1 در گوگل