International Financial Reporting Standard 15
Revenue from Contracts with Customers
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers is published by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).
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from paragraph IN1
INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARD 15 REVENUE FROM
CONTRACTS WITH CUSTOMERS
Meeting the objective
Identifying the contract
Combination of contracts
Identifying performance obligations
Promises in contracts with customers
Distinct goods or services
Satisfaction of performance obligations
Performance obligations satisfied over time
Performance obligations satisfied at a point in time
Measuring progress towards complete satisfaction of a performance obligation
Determining the transaction price
The existence of a significant financing component in the contract
Consideration payable to a customer
Allocating the transaction price to performance obligations
Allocation based on stand-alone selling prices
Allocation of a discount
Allocation of variable consideration
Changes in the transaction price
Incremental costs of obtaining a contract
Costs to fulfil a contract
Amortisation and impairment
Contracts with customers
Disaggregation of revenue
Transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligations
Significant judgements in the application of this Standard
Determining the timing of satisfaction of performance obligations
International Financial Reporting Standard 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (IFRS 15) is set out in paragraphs 1-129 and Appendices A-D. All the paragraphs have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type state the main principles. Terms defined in Appendix A are in italics the first time that they appear in the Standard. Definitions of
other terms are given in the Glossary for International Financial Reporting Standards. The Standard should be read in the context of its objective and the Basis for Conclusions, the Preface to International Financial Reporting Standards and the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting. IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors provides a basis for selecting and applying accounting policies in the absence of explicit guidance
International Financial Reporting Standard 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (IFRS 15) establishes principles for reporting useful information to users of financial statements about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from an entity's contracts with customers. IFRS 15 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2017. Earlier application is permitted.
IFRS 15 supersedes:
IAS 11 Construction Contracts;(a)
IAS 18 Revenue;(b)
IFRIC 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes;(c)
IFRIC 15 Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate;(d)
IFRIC 18 Transfers of Assets from Customers; and(e)
SIC-31 Revenue—Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services. (f)
Reasons for issuing the IFRS
Revenue is an important number to users of financial statements in assessing an entity's financial performance and position. However, previous revenue recognition requirements in International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) differed from those in US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP) and both sets of requirements were in need of improvement. Previous revenue recognition requirements in IFRS provided limited guidance and, consequently, the two main revenue recognition Standards, IAS 18 and IAS 11, could be difficult to apply to complex transactions. In addition, IAS 18 provided limited guidance on many important revenue topics such as accounting for multiple-element arrangements. In contrast, US GAAP comprised broad revenue recognition concepts together with numerous revenue requirements for particular industries or transactions, which sometimes resulted in different accounting for economically similar transactions.
Accordingly, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the US national standard-setter, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), initiated a joint project to clarify the principles for recognising revenue and to develop a common revenue standard for IFRS and US GAAP that would:
(a) remove inconsistencies and weaknesses in previous revenue requirements;
(b) provide a more robust framework for addressing revenue issues;
(c) improve comparability of revenue recognition practices across entities,
industries, jurisdictions and capital markets; provide more useful information to users of financial statements through improved disclosure requirements; and simplify the preparation of financial statements by reducing the number of requirements to which an entity must refer.
IFRS 15, together with Topic 606 that was introduced into the FASB Accounting Standards Codification® by Accounting Standards Update 2014-09 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), completes the joint effort by the IASB and the FASB to meet those objectives and improve financial reporting by creating a common revenue recognition standard for IFRS and US GAAP.
The core principle of IFRS 15 is that an entity recognises revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. An entity recognises revenue in accordance with that core principle by applying the following steps:
Step 1: Identify the contract(s) with a customer—a contract is an
agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations. The requirements of IFRS 15 apply to each contract that has been agreed upon with a customer and meets specified criteria. In some cases, IFRS 15 requires an entity to combine contracts and account for them as one contract. IFRS 15 also provides requirements for the accounting for contract modifications.
Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract—a
contract includes promises to transfer goods or services to a customer. If those goods or services are distinct, the promises are performance obligations and are accounted for separately. A good or service is distinct if the customer can benefit from the good or service on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and the entity's promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract.
Step 3: Determine the transaction price—the transaction price is the
amount of consideration in a contract to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer. The transaction price can be a fixed amount of customer consideration, but it may sometimes include variable consideration or consideration in a form other than cash. The transaction price is also adjusted for the effects of the time value of money if the contract includes a significant financing component and for any consideration payable to the customer. If the consideration is variable, an entity estimates the amount of consideration to which it will be entitled in exchange for the promised goods or services. The estimated amount of variable consideration will be included in the transaction price only to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the
amount of cumulative revenue recognised will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved.
Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance
obligations in the contract—an entity typically allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation on the basis of the relative stand-alone selling prices of each distinct good or service promised in the contract. If a stand-alone selling price is not observable, an entity estimates it. Sometimes, the transaction price includes a discount or a variable amount of consideration that relates entirely to a part of the contract. The requirements specify when an entity allocates the discount or variable consideration to one or more, but not all, performance obligations (or distinct goods or services) in the contract.
Step 5: Recognise revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a
performance obligation—an entity recognises revenue when (or as) it satisfies a performance obligation by transferring a promised good or service to a customer (which is when the customer obtains control of that good or service). The amount of revenue recognised is the amount allocated to the satisfied performance obligation. A performance obligation may be satisfied at a point in time (typically for promises to transfer goods to a customer) or over time (typically for promises to transfer services to a customer). For performance obligations satisfied over time, an entity recognises revenue over time by selecting an appropriate method for measuring the entity's progress towards complete satisfaction of that performance obligation.
IFRS 15 also includes a cohesive set of disclosure requirements that would result in an entity providing users of financial statements with comprehensive information about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from the entity's contracts with customers. Specifically,
IFRS 15 requires an entity to provide information about:
revenue recognised from contracts with customers, including the disaggregation of revenue into appropriate categories; contract balances, including the opening and closing balances of receivables, contract assets and contract liabilities; performance obligations, including when the entity typically satisfies its performance obligations and the transaction price that is allocated to the remaining performance obligations in a contract; significant judgements, and changes in judgements, made in applying the requirements to those contracts; and assets recognised from the costs to obtain or fulfil a contract with a customer.
The IASB and the FASB achieved their goal of reaching the same conclusions on all requirements for the accounting for revenue from contracts with customers.
The objective of this Standard is to establish the principles that an entity shall apply to report useful information to users of financial statements about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from a contract with a customer.
Meeting the objective
To meet the objective in paragraph 1, the core principle of this Standard is that
an entity shall recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.
An entity shall consider the terms of the contract and all relevant facts and circumstances when applying this Standard. An entity shall apply this Standard, including the use of any practical expedients, consistently to contracts with similar characteristics and in similar circumstances.
This Standard specifies the accounting for an individual contract with a customer. However, as a practical expedient, an entity may apply this Standard to a portfolio of contracts (or performance obligations) with similar characteristics
if the entity reasonably expects that the effects on the financial statements of applying this Standard to the portfolio would not differ materially from applying this Standard to the individual contracts (or performance obligations) within that portfolio. When accounting for a portfolio, an entity shall use estimates and assumptions that reflect the size and composition of the portfolio.
An entity shall apply this Standard to all contracts with customers, except the following:
lease contracts within the scope of IAS 17 Leases; insurance contracts within the scope of IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts; financial instruments and other contractual rights or obligations within the scope of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements, IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements, IAS 27 Separate Financial Statements and IAS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures; and non-monetary exchanges between entities in the same line of business to facilitate sales to customers or potential customers. For example, this Standard would not apply to a contract between two oil companies that agree to an exchange of oil to fulfil demand from their customers in different specified locations on a timely basis. An entity shall apply this Standard to a contract (other than a contract listed in paragraph 5) only if the counterparty to the contract is a customer. A customer is a party that has contracted with an entity to obtain goods or services that are an output of the entity's ordinary activities in exchange for consideration. A counterparty to the contract would not be a customer if, for example, the counterparty has contracted with the entity to participate in an activity or process in which the parties to the contract share in the risks and benefits that result from the activity or process (such as developing an asset in a collaboration arrangement) rather than to obtain the output of the entity's ordinary activities
If the other Standards specify how to separate and/or initially measure one or more parts of the contract, then an entity shall first apply the separation and/or measurement requirements in those Standards. An entity shall exclude from the transaction price the amount of the part (or parts) of the contract that are initially measured in accordance with other Standards and shall apply paragraphs 73-86 to allocate the amount of the transaction price that remains (if any) to each performance obligation within the scope of this Standard and to any other parts of the contract identified by paragraph 7(b).
If the other Standards do not specify how to separate and/or initially measure one or more parts of the contract, then the entity shall apply this Standard to separate and/or initially measure the part (or parts) of the contract.
This Standard specifies the accounting for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer and for the costs incurred to fulfil a contract with a customer if those costs are not within the scope of another Standard (see paragraphs 91-104). An entity shall apply those paragraphs only to the costs incurred that relate to a contract with a customer (or part of that contract) that is within the scope of this Standard.
Identifying the contract An entity shall account for a contract with a customer that is within the scope of this Standard only when all of the following criteria are met:
the parties to the contract have approved the contract (in writing, orally or in accordance with other customary business practices) and are committed to perform their respective obligations; the entity can identify each party's rights regarding the goods or services to be transferred; the entity can identify the payment terms for the goods or services to be transferred; the contract has commercial substance (ie the risk, timing or amount of the entity's future cash flows is expected to change as a result of the contract); and it is probable that the entity will collect the consideration to which
it will be entitled in exchange for the goods or services that will be transferred to the customer. In evaluating whether collectability of an amount of consideration is probable, an entity shall consider only the customer's ability and intention to pay that amount of consideration when it is due. The amount of consideration to which the entity will be entitled may be less than the price stated in the contract if the consideration is variable because the entity may offer the customer a price concession (see paragraph 52).
A contract is an agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations. Enforceability of the rights and obligations in a contract is a matter of law. Contracts can be written, oral or implied by an entity's customary business practices. The practices and processes for establishing contracts with customers vary across legal jurisdictions, industries and entities. In addition, they may vary within an entity (for example, they may depend on the class of customer or the nature of the promised goods or services). An entity shall consider those practices and processes in determining whether and when an agreement with a customer creates enforceable rights and obligations.
Some contracts with customers may have no fixed duration and can be terminated or modified by either party at any time. Other contracts may automatically renew on a periodic basis that is specified in the contract. An entity shall apply this Standard to the duration of the contract (ie the contractual period) in which the parties to the contract have present enforceable rights and obligations.
For the purpose of applying this Standard, a contract does not exist if each party to the contract has the unilateral enforceable right to terminate a wholly unperformed contract without compensating the other party (or parties). A
contract is wholly unperformed if both of the following criteria are met: (a) the entity has not yet transferred any promised goods or services to the customer; and
(b) the entity has not yet received, and is not yet entitled to receive, any
consideration in exchange for promised goods or services.
If a contract with a customer meets the criteria in paragraph 9 at contract inception, an entity shall not reassess those criteria unless there is an indication of a significant change in facts and circumstances. For example, if a customer's ability to pay the consideration deteriorates significantly, an entity would reassess whether it is probable that the entity will collect the consideration to which the entity will be entitled in exchange for the remaining goods or services that will be transferred to the customer.
If a contract with a customer does not meet the criteria in paragraph 9, an entity shall continue to assess the contract to determine whether the criteria in paragraph 9 are subsequently met.
When a contract with a customer does not meet the criteria in paragraph 9 and an entity receives consideration from the customer, the entity shall recognise the consideration received as revenue only when either of the following events has occurred:
the entity has no remaining obligations to transfer goods or services to
the customer and all, or substantially all, of the consideration promised by the customer has been received by the entity and is non-refundable; or