This IFRS shall be applied prospectively to business combinations for which the
acquisition date is on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning on or after 1 July 2009. Earlier application is permitted. However, this IFRS shall be applied only at the beginning of an annual reporting period that begins on or after 30 June 2007. If an entity applies this IFRS before 1 July 2009, it shall disclose that fact and apply IAS 27 (as amended in 2008) at the same time.
Improvements to IFRSs issued in May 2010 amended paragraphs 19, 30 and B56 and added paragraphs B62A and B62B. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2010. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies the amendments for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact. Application should be prospective from the date when the entity first applied this IFRS.
Paragraphs 65A-65E were added by Improvements to IFRSs issued in May 2010. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2010. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies the amendments for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact. The amendments shall be applied to contingent consideration balances arising from business combinations with an acquisition date prior to the application of this IFRS, as issued in 2008.
IFRS 10, issued in May 2011, amended paragraphs 7, B13, B63(e) and Appendix A. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 10.
IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement, issued in May 2011, amended paragraphs 20, 29, 33, 47, amended the definition of fair value in Appendix A and amended paragraphs B22, B40, B43-B46, B49 and B64. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 13.
Investment Entities (Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 27), issued in October 2012, amended paragraph 7 and added paragraph 2A. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2014. Earlier application of Investment Entities is permitted. If an entity applies these amendments earlier it shall also apply all amendments included in Investment Entities at the same time.
IFRS 9, as amended in November 2013, amended paragraphs 16, 42, 53, 56 and 58(b) and deleted paragraphs 64A and 64D. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 9 as amended in November 2013.
Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2010-2012 Cycle, issued in December 2013, amended paragraphs 40 and 58 and added paragraph 67A and its related heading. An entity shall apply that amendment prospectively to business combinations for which the acquisition date is on or after 1 July 2014. Earlier application is permitted. An entity may apply the amendment earlier provided that IFRS 9 and IAS 37 (both as amended by Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2010-2012 Cycle) have also
been applied. If an entity applies that amendment earlier it shall disclose that fact.
Annual Improvements Cycle 2011-2013 issued in December 2013 amended paragraph 2(a). An entity shall apply that amendment prospectively for annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2014. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies that amendment for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact.
Assets and liabilities that arose from business combinations whose acquisition
dates preceded the application of this IFRS shall not be adjusted upon application of this IFRS.
Contingent consideration balances arising from business combinations whose acquisition dates preceded the date when an entity first applied this IFRS as issued in 2008 shall not be adjusted upon first application of this IFRS. Paragraphs 65B-65E shall be applied in the subsequent accounting for those balances. Paragraphs 65B-65E shall not apply to the accounting for contingent consideration balances arising from business combinations with acquisition dates on or after the date when the entity first applied this IFRS as issued in 2008. In paragraphs 65B-65E business combination refers exclusively to business combinations whose acquisition date preceded the application of this IFRS as issued in 2008.
If a business combination agreement provides for an adjustment to the cost of the combination contingent on future events, the acquirer shall include the amount of that adjustment in the cost of the combination at the acquisition date if the adjustment is probable and can be measured reliably.
A business combination agreement may allow for adjustments to the cost of the combination that are contingent on might, for example, be contingent on a specified level of profit being maintained or achieved in future periods, or on the market price of the instruments issued being maintained. It is usually possible to estimate the amount of any such adjustment at the time of initially accounting for the combination without impairing the reliability of the information, even though some uncertainty exists. If the future events do not occur or the estimate needs to be revised, the cost of the business combination shall be adjusted accordingly.one or more future events. The adjustment
However, when a business combination agreement provides for such an adjustment, that adjustment is not included in the cost of the combination at the time of initially accounting for the combination if it either is not probable or cannot be measured reliably. If that adjustment subsequently becomes probable and can be measured reliably, the additional consideration shall be treated as an adjustment to the cost of the combination.
In some circumstances, the acquirer may be required to make a subsequent payment to the seller as compensation for a reduction in the value of the assets given, equity instruments issued or liabilities incurred or assumed by the acquirer in exchange for control of the acquiree. This is the case, for example, when the acquirer guarantees the market price of equity or debt instruments issued as part of the cost of the business combination and is required to issue additional equity or debt instruments to restore the originally determined cost. In such cases, no increase in the cost of the business combination is recognised. In the case of equity instruments, the fair value of the additional payment is offset by an equal reduction in the value attributed to the instruments initially issued. In the case of debt instruments, the additional payment is regarded as a reduction in the premium or an increase in the discount on the initial issue.
An entity, such as a mutual entity, that has not yet applied IFRS 3 and had one or more business combinations that were accounted for using the purchase
method shall apply the transition provisions in paragraphs B68 and B69.
For business combinations in which the acquisition date was before this IFRS is applied, the acquirer shall apply the requirements of paragraph 68 of IAS 12, as amended by this IFRS, prospectively. That is to say, the acquirer shall not adjust the accounting for prior business combinations for previously recognised changes in recognised deferred tax assets. However, from the date when this IFRS is applied, the acquirer shall recognise, as an adjustment to profit or loss (or, if IAS 12 requires, outside profit or loss), changes in recognised deferred tax assets.
Reference to IFRS 9
If an entity applies this Standard but does not yet apply IFRS 9, any reference to
IFRS 9 should be read as a reference to IAS 39.
Withdrawal of IFRS 3 (2004)
This IFRS supersedes IFRS 3 Business Combinations (as issued in 2004).
This appendix is an integral part of the IFRS.
Business combinations of entities under common control
(application of paragraph 2(c))
This IFRS does not apply to a business combination of entities or businesses under common control. A business combination involving entities or businesses under common control is a business combination in which all of the combining entities or businesses are ultimately controlled by the same party or parties both before and after the business combination, and that control is not transitory.
A group of individuals shall be regarded as controlling an entity when, as a result of contractual arrangements, they collectively have the power to govern its financial and operating policies so as to obtain benefits from its activities. Therefore, a business combination is outside the scope of this IFRS when the same group of individuals has, as a result of contractual arrangements, ultimate collective power to govern the financial and operating policies of each of the combining entities so as to obtain benefits from their activities, and that ultimate collective power is not transitory.
An entity may be controlled by an individual or by a group of individuals acting together under a contractual arrangement, and that individual or group of individuals may not be subject to the financial reporting requirements of IFRSs. Therefore, it is not necessary for combining entities to be included as part of the same consolidated financial statements for a business combination to be regarded as one involving entities under common control.
The extent of non-controlling interests in each of the combining entities before and after the business combination is not relevant to determining whether the combination involves entities under common control. Similarly, the fact that one of the combining entities is a subsidiary that has been excluded from the consolidated financial statements is not relevant to determining whether a combination involves entities under common control.
Identifying a business combination (application of paragraph 3)
This IFRS defines a business combination as a transaction or other event in
which an acquirer obtains control of one or more businesses. An acquirer might
obtain control of an acquiree in a variety of ways, for example:
a) by transferring cash, cash equivalents or other assets (including net
assets that constitute a business);
b)by incurring liabilities;
c)by issuing equity interests;
d) by providing more than one type of consideration; or
e) without transferring consideration, including by contract alone (see paragraph 43).
A business consists of inputs and processes applied to those inputs that have the
ability to create outputs. Although businesses usually have outputs, outputs are not required for an integrated set to qualify as a business. The three elements of
a business are defined as follows:
a)Input: Any economic resource that creates, or has the ability to create, outputs when one or more processes are applied to it. Examples include non-current assets (including intangible assets or rights to use non-current assets), intellectual property, the ability to obtain access to necessary materials or rights and employees.
b)Process: Any system, standard, protocol, convention or rule that when applied to an input or inputs, creates or has the ability to create outputs. Examples include strategic management processes, operational processes and resource management processes. These processes typically are documented, but an organised workforce having the necessary skills and experience following rules and conventions may provide the necessary processes that are capable of being applied to inputs to create outputs. (Accounting, billing, payroll and other administrative systems
typically are not processes used to create outputs.)
c)Output: The result of inputs and processes applied to those inputs that provide or have the ability to provide a return in the form of dividends, lower costs or other economic benefits directly to investors or other owners, members or participants.
To be capable of being conducted and managed for the purposes defined, an integrated set of activities and assets requires two essential elements—inputs and processes applied to those inputs, which together are or will be used to create outputs. However, a business need not include all of the inputs or processes that the seller used in operating that business if market participants are capable of acquiring the business and continuing to produce outputs, for example, by integrating the business with their own inputs and processes.
The nature of the elements of a business varies by industry and by the structure of an entity's operations (activities), including the entity's stage of development
Established businesses often have many different types of inputs, processes and outputs, whereas new businesses often have few inputs and processes and sometimes only a single output (product). Nearly all businesses also have liabilities, but a business need not have liabilities.
An integrated set of activities and assets in the development stage might not have outputs. If not, the acquirer should consider other factors to determine whether the set is a business. Those factors include, but are not limited to,
whether the set:
a)has begun planned principal activities;
b)has employees, intellectual property and other inputs and processes that
c)could be applied to those inputs;
is pursuing a plan to produce outputs; and
d)will be able to obtain access to customers that will purchase the outputs
Not all of those factors need to be present for a particular integrated set of activities and assets in the development stage to qualify as a business.
Determining whether a particular set of assets and activities is a business should be based on whether the integrated set is capable of being conducted and managed as a business by a market participant. Thus, in evaluating whether a particular set is a business, it is not relevant whether a seller operated the set as a business or whether the acquirer intends to operate the set as a business.
In the absence of evidence to the contrary, a particular set of assets and activities in which goodwill is present shall be presumed to be a business. However, a business need not have goodwill
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